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217907, ATHENIAN, St. Petersburg, State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, State Hermitage Museum, P1837.2

  • Vase Number: 217907
  • Fabric: ATHENIAN
  • Technique: RED-FIGURE
  • Sub Technique: RELIEF
  • Shape Name: LEKYTHOS, SQUAT
  • Provenance: RUSSIA, SOUTH, KERCH
  • Date: -450 to -400
  • Attributed To: XENOPHANTOS P by HAUSER
  • Last Recorded Collection: St. Petersburg, State Hermitage Museum: ST1790
  • Previous Collections:
    • St. Petersburg, State Hermitage Museum: P1837.2
    • St. Petersburg, State Hermitage Museum: 1837
  • Publication Record: Beazley, J.D., Attic Red-Figure Vase-Painters, 2nd edition (Oxford, 1963): 1407.1
    Beazley, J.D., Paralipomena (Oxford, 1971): 488
    Boardman, J. (ed.), Cambridge Ancient History, Plates to Volumes 5 & 6 (Cambridge, 1995): 41, FIG.46 (PART)
    Boardman, J., Athenian Red Figure Vases, The Classical Period (London, 1989): FIG.340
    Boardman, J., Die Perser und der Westen, Eine archäologische Untersuchung zur Entwicklung der Achämenidischen Kunst (Mainz, 2003): 256-257, FIGS.5.93A-D (PART, DRAWINGS)
    Boardman, J., The Greeks in Asia (London, 2015): 48, FIG.26 (PART OF BD)
    Boardman, J., The history of Greek vases: potters, painters and pictures (London, 2001): 103, FIG.138 (PART)
    Borchardt, J. (ed.), Götter, Heroen, Herrscher in Lykien (Vienna and Munich, 1990): 123, NO.5 (COLOUR OF PARTS OF BD)
    Borchhardt, J., Pekridou-Gorecki, A., et al., Limyra, Studien zu Kunst und Epigraphik in den Nekropolen der Antike (Vienna, 2012): PL.19.3 (DRAWINGS OF BD, S AND PART)
    Bukina, A. et al., Greek vases in the Imperial Hermitage Museum: The history of the collection 1816-69, with Addenda et Corrigenda to Ludolf Stephani, Die Vasen-Sammlung der Kaiserlichen Ermitage (1869) (Oxford, 2013): PL.7 (DRAWING OF BD AND SH)
    Castoldi, M., Alberi di bronzo. Piante in bronzo e in metalli preziosi nell'antica Grecia (Bari, 2014): 54, FIGS.20-21 (PART OF BD AND DRAWING)
    Cohen, B., The Colours of Clay, Special Techniques in Athenian Vases (Los Angeles, 2006): 140-142, NO.37 (COLOUR OF PARTS)
    Franks, H.M., Hunters, Heroes, Kings. The Frieze of Tomb II at Vergina (Princeton, 2012): 96-97, FIGS.66-67 (COLOUR OF PARTS)
    Hesperia: The Journal of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens: 78.4 (2009) 456-458 (COLOUR OF BD AND PARTS, DRAWING OF BD)
    Miller, M.C., Athens and Persia in the Fifth Century BC, A study in cultural receptivity (Cambridge, 1997): PL.81 (PART)
    Oakley, J.H. et al., Athenian Potters and Painters, The Conference Proceedings (Oxford, 1997): 269-277, FIGS.1-9 (PART, AH, DRAWINGS)
    Papanastasiou, A., Relations Between Redfigured and Black-glazed Vases in Athens of the 4th Century B.C., BAR International Series 1297 (Oxford, 2004): PL.100.1 (PART)
    Petrakova, A. and Bukina, A., Minor Collections of Ancient Vases in Russian Museums (St. Petersburg, 2019): 25, FIG.19 (DRAWINGS)
    Praktika tes en Athenais Archaiologikes Hetaireias: 2002, PL.253 (PART)
    Schefold, K., Untersuchungen zu den Kertscher Vasen (Berlin, 1934): FIG.67 (PART)
    Schierup, S. & Rasmussen, B.B. (eds.), Red-figure Pottery in its Ancient Setting, Gosta Enbom Monographs 2 (Copenhagen, 2012): 34, FIG.1 (COLOUR OF PART OF BD)
    Sparkes, B.A., Greek Art, Second Edition (Cambridge, 2011): 102, FIG.32 (COLOUR OF PART)
    Tiverios, M.A., Elliniki techni, archaia angaia (Athens, 1996): 202, FIG.187 (COLOUR OF PART)
    Trofimova, A.A. (ed.), Greeks on the Black Sea, Ancient Art from the Hermitage (Los Angeles, 2007): 27, FIG.3.3 (COLOUR OF PART)
    Vlassopoulos, K., Greeks and Barbarians (Cambridge, 2013): FRONT COVER, 198, FIG.22 (PART OF BD, COLOUR OF PART OF BD)
  • AVI Web:
  • AVI Record Number: 7419
  • CAVI Collection: St. Petersburg St. 1790.
  • CAVI Lemma: RF squat lekythos with relief decoration. From Kerch (Panticapaeum) (near). Xenophantos Painter. First quarter fourth{1}.
  • CAVI Subject: Shoulder: in relief: three times Nike driving a biga in the presence of a Persian archer(2); between, Centauromachy and Gigantomachy. Body: relief and RF: Persians hunting.
  • CAVI Inscriptions: On a band between body and neck, in added clay, gilded: Ξενοφαντος εποιησεν Αθην[αιος]{3}. Body: inscriptions horizontal: above head of a bearded Persian throwing a stone at a griffin to right: Ατρα^μις{4}. Bearded Persian to left, confronting a youth holding back a dog; between the Persian's legs: Κυρος. Above the horses of a Persian riding a chariot to right: Αβροκομας{5}. Behind the rump of a horse on which rides young Dareios to left, killing a stag or doe (see T. 270): Δ[α]ρ^ειος{6}. Between the legs of a bearded Persian launching a spear to right: Ευ^ρυαλ^ος{7}. To left of face of youth in Persian garb: ΚλυτιοΙς{8}. To left of a bearded Persian peltast who is spearing a griffin: Σεισ^αμ|ης{9}.
  • CAVI Footnotes: NOT in Add.(1). 187 (ref. is to St. Petersburg 33a, ARV[2] 1408/1, by the Painter of the New York Centauromachy), nor in Add.[2] 374. {1} "in den ersten Jahrzehnten des 4. Jh. v. Chr. entstanden," Tiverios. {2} T. says the figure with bow by the chariot driven by Nike is the Oriental Heracles. But see his n. 5: different ientifications by Beazley. {3} the adj. left incomplete for lack of space (Tiverios); Αθην[αιος], Beazley. {4} the raised arms intervenes. For Atramis cf. Attramyttion (see T., n. 48). {5} satrap of Syria. {6} a tripod column intervenes. {7} the legs intervene. {8} final sigma written in a second line, below and a bit to left of the tau, since the omicron is right up to the face. {9} the sixth letter is right up to Seisames' chest; the last two letters written at some distance within the cutout of the pelta. The spear also intervenes. The name is in Aesch. Pers. 322.
  • CAVI Comments: The inscriptions after the drs. in Stephani as reproduced by Tiverios. Stephani declared this to be a generic hunting image with Habrokomas the principal figure, taking place among the Hyperboraeans, and this has been generally accepted, but Tiverios identifies Darius with the son of Artaxerxes II, Cyrus with his uncle (of Xenophon's Anabasis) and Habrokomas with the governor of Syria (so for Dareios and Habrokomas already de Luynes in 1856). Euryalos and Klytios (the two Greek names) are probably figures of Greek mercenaries at the Persian court. He thinks the hunt is a historical one, which took place in a Persian paradeisos, despite the presence of griffins which are added to please the Panticapaeans. For a bibl. of other interpretations, see nn. 13 and 18. He thinks the vase was made in Panticapaeum and not in Athens, by the same painter-potter as the other vase signed Xenophantos. But cf. St. Petersburg (no no.), ARV[2] 1407, bottom, with the same signature, which I think is by a different hand, although Tiverios points out that some applied figures use the same matrices as this vase. - Robertson: the signature on this vase, mentioning that X. is an Athenian, strongly suggests that both vases were made in Panticapaeum (similarly D.A. Amyx, AJA 51 (1947) 500-502, review of Richter, ARFV); cf. Teisias of Athens working in Boeotia. The father's name is not mentioned since he was probably not a craftsman; so also Tiverios. - I doubt that Tiverios' historical interpretation can be right, since Cyrus on the vase is bearded, while the Younger Cyrus was a youth when he died in 401 at the battle of Cunaxa. - Ionic alphabet.
  • CAVI Number: 7419
  • AVI Bibliography: Stephani (1866), pl. 4. — Hoppin (1919), ii, 475 (from Compte Rendu ... 1866). — Peredol’skaya (1945), 1, 60, pls. 1-4. — ARV[2] (1963), 1407/1. — Para. (1971), 488 (not in Add.[1], 187 (ref. is to Leningrad 33a, ARV[2] 1408/1, by the Painter of the New York Centauromachy), nor in Add.[2] 374). — Boardman (1989), fig. 340 (3 ill.'s; one shows inscriptions). — AttScr (1990), no. 818. — Robertson (1992), 268. — Threatte (1996), 689. — Tiverios (1997), 269-284, n. 1 (bibl.), figs. 1-9 (1-2, phs. of front and back; 3, dr. of shoulder frieze with signature; 4-9, drs. of main scene; the drs. after L. Stephani, CRPetersbourg 1866, pl. 4).
  • CAVI / AVI Data from Henry Immerwahr's Corpus of Attic Vase Inscriptions (CAVI), updated by Rudoph Wachter's Attic Vase Inscriptions (AVI)
  • Pleiades URI:
  • Coordinates: 45.354558,36.46843
  • Pleiades Coordinates: 45.3532623333,36.470222
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