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II. MAINLY LEVANTINE SUBJECTS

16. Royal warriors, various

These are figures alone or in groups, other than those with lions or seated before an incense-burner.

A. With pointed helmet

On the type, Culican, AJBA 1 (1968) 100-103; 'no ordinary soldier'.

West

16/1 Ibiza no. 61 (Barcelona 9287). BH; on a silver hoop C. Walks holding out a severed, bearded, human head; shoulders an axe and has a shield with lion-head boss at his back; waves below, a branch in front. I

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16/2 Ibiza no. 62 (Ibiza 4259). BH;EXCR;PB. Stands holding spear and shield with lion-head boss, an axe in lowered hand. Short dress with tassels. III

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16/3 Ibiza no. 63 (Ibiza 4774). Very worn; as the last?

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16/4 Cagliari 9456 Spano), from Tharros. Marmora, pl. B 77; Hölbl, Sard no. 132. BL; on gold hoop B. Man with tasselled helmet, long dress; holding a spear and a short khnum sceptre; cartouche, crescent and ankh in field; standing on cavetto base. III

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Other

16/5 Sternberg, Aukt. 26 (1992) no. 518; 22 (1989) no. 473; Syria 76 (1999) 268, fig. 53. BH. Man with helmet with forward crest, patterned tunic and skirt, holding a shield with lion-head boss and spear, and an axe in lowered hand.

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B. With flat square crown

Drawing a bow, wearing a long skirt, and standing over a lion. The type of crown is not clear, but not, it seems, Achaemenid.

16/6 Spano Coll., from Tharros. Marmora, pl. B 82. BH;EXnb. A letter in front.

Drawing of gem

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16/7 Munich no. 221, pl. 24, from Sardinia. Zazoff, pl. 22.1. As the last.

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C. With pointed helmet fighting a rearing goat

All have short dress and seem not particularly regal, but the goat as adversary appears in monumental near eastern and Persian art.

East

16/8 Getty no. 99, from Asia Minor. BL;EXCR. Crescent above. VI

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16/9 Paris, Bibl.Nat., de Clercq no. 2766, pl. 18 (E25914). BL;EXnb. VI

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Other

16/10 Cambridge. Iraq 21 (1959) pl. 11.75. BH. VID.

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Other materials

Type A

16/X1 Nicosia, from Kition. Kition II, no. 505; RSJ 8 (1980) pl. 2.3-4 (Gubel); Reyes, no. 180. Lapis lazuli. BL. Shoulders axe and holds palm sceptre; Disc-and-crescent above. Long dress, no headdress.

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16/X2 Boston 98.712, from Cyprus. AG pl. 61.11; RSF 4 (1976) pl. 9.2 (Culican). Green glass or plasma?. EXCR; in gold mount. Stands holding sceptre and shouldering axe, long dress.

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16/X3 Jerusalem IAA 73-203 (once Lefkowitz). Clay bulla from Akko. AJBA 1 (1968) 97, pl. 5B (Culican); CSAPI no. 5. Stands holding spear and shield with lion-head boss, with battle axe raised, wearing long dress and cape.

Gem image & drawing

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Type D

16/X4 Karthago II, pl. 7c. Clay bulla. BH;EXnb. Riding a horse, shouldering an axe. The fine border and deep exergue suggests this might be from a metal intaglio, but there was a mount, so perhaps just a hard stone, well cut.

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